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The  four main constituents of Optics are:
Reflection, Refraction, Wave theory-&-Quantum theory
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Ruby LASER
Arthur L. Schawlow  and Charles H. Townes of Bell Labs are credited with the invention of the first LASER in 1958. However, the first operable LASER was "invented" in 1960 by Physicist Theodore Harold Maiman, while employed at Hughes Research Laboratories. 

The LASER consisted of a ruby crystal surrounded by a helicoidal flash tube enclosed within a polished aluminum cylindrical cavity cooled by forced air. The ruby cylinder forms a Fabry-Perot cavity by optically polishing the ends to be parallel to within a third of a wavelength of light. Each end was coated with evaporated silver, one end was made less reflective to allow some radiation to escape as a beam.

First Working LASER 
invented by Physicist Theodore Harold Maiman
 
   

Ruby Crystal with polished and silvered ends 
Helicoidal Flash Tube
 Flash Tube & Ruby
 
Gas LASER-- He-Ne
 
 
 
 
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DIODE  LASER
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   laser/history/bell-labs
 
Bell Labs 1958: Arthur L. Schawlow and Charles H. Townes, the inventors of the maser, a device that amplifies electromagnetic waves, created a means for the sensitive reception of communications, published "Infrared and Optical Masers" in the American Physical Society's Physical Review. The paper describes the basic principles of the laser, initiating this new scientific field.

Physicist Theodore Harold Maiman invented the first operable laser while employed at Hughes Research Laboratories as a section head in 1960. He developed, demonstrated, and patented a laser using a pink ruby medium, for which he gained worldwide recognition.

It consisted of a ruby crystal surrounded by a helicoidal flash tube enclosed within a polished aluminum cylindrical cavity cooled by forced air. The ruby cylinder forms a Fabry-Perot cavity by optically polishing the ends to be parallel to within a third of a wavelength of light. Each end was coated with evaporated silver, one end was made less reflective to allow some radiation to escape as a beam.

The laser was photo-pumped by a fast discharge flash-lamp, the first ruby lasers operated in pulsed mode for reasons of heat dissipation and the need for high pumping powers. Nelson and Boyle (1962) constructed a continuous lasing ruby by replacing the flash lamp with an arc lamp.

 

 
 
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